State Laws Addressing Predatory and Unethical Substance Use Disorder Treatment Practices

A document summarizing a recent 50-state survey and Impact Analysis on Patient Protection and Treatment Ethics legislation.

Model Act Providing for the Warm Hand-Off of Overdose Survivors to Treatment - 2nd Edition

A model law that requires use of the most effective practices to transfer stabilized overdose survivors directly and immediately to clinically appropriate treatment and recovery support services. Updated 07-01-2019.

Model Universal Access to Naloxone Act - 3rd Edition

A model law to reduce opioid overdose deaths that makes naloxone universally available to first responders and the general public. The act also ensures comprehensive financial support for naloxone. Updated 07-01-2019.

Updated Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) Model Laws

A series of model laws that are designed to give states tools to better address the proliferation of illicit NPS through more comprehensive identification of the substances and improved temporary and permanent scheduling processes. Updated 07-01-2019.

Model Patient Protection and Treatment Ethics Act

A model law outlawing unethical “treatment providers” who are preying on those suffering with SUDs and their families to fiscally exploit them and their health insurers without providing real treatment, through patient brokering, website hijacking, kickbacks and other illegal means.

Model Deflection to Treatment Act

A model law to increase law enforcement deflection programs in which officers help individuals in need access licensed substance use disorder or mental health treatment. This model was developed in collaboration with Police, Treatment and Community Collaborative (PTACC) and Treatment Alternatives for Safe Communities (TASC) Center for Health and Justice.

NAMSDL is dedicated to increasing the impact of state laws, policies and protocols aimed at reducing substance use disorders in our nation’s families and communities in the following areas:

Prevention and Intervention

We create model laws and policies to promote evidence-based prevention and intervention activities to stop underage alcohol use, to reduce the inappropriate prescribing of controlled substances, to ensure patients understand the risks and benefits of a prescribed controlled substance medication and to stop children and adults from initiating the use of an illicit substance or misusing a prescription drug.


We draft model laws and policies to ensure educators, healthcare providers, first responders, criminal justice officials, child protective service professionals and others are trained and funded to identify and refer those with substance use disorders for assessment and treatment, and that all modalities of treatment are funded and available at clinically appropriate levels for those who need it.

Recovery Support

We develop model laws and policies to create and enhance the infrastructure required to support individuals who are in recovery from a substance use disorder to live a healthy and fruitful life, to raise a family in a safe and nurturing environment, to gain meaningful employment and to create meaningful relationships within the community.

Overdose Abatement

We create model laws and policies that reduce the stigma and impediments to the use of lifesaving overdose reversal medications, that promote the broadest possible access to those medications, and that ensure comprehensive financial support for the
dispensing, distribution, and use of the medication via private insurance, Medicaid, and other state funding mechanisms.

Criminal Justice

We develop model laws and policies to support effective public safety activities that ensure persons suffering from a substance use disorder avoid the criminal justice system and receive appropriate treatment instead of incarceration or otherwise receive appropriate treatment while they are involved with the criminal justice system.


NAMSDL’s strength is in our partnerships. We draw upon the expertise and experience of collaborating stakeholders in the realms of prevention, intervention, treatment, recovery support, overdose abatement and law enforcement to empower states by identifying and creating the most comprehensive, integrative and effective model laws, policies and protocols in the areas of drug and alcohol prevention, intervention, treatment, recovery support, overdose abatement and criminal justice.

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This website is funded in part through a cooperative agreement from the Bureau of Justice Assistance, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice and a grant from the Office of National Drug Control Policy. No federal instrumentality, including the Office of Drug Control Policy, the U.S. Department of Justice or its components, operate, control, are responsible for or necessarily endorse this website (including, without limitation, its content, technical infrastructure, policies and any services or tools provided).